(a) A student pilot shall not fly solo unless authorised to do so and supervised by a flight instructor.
(b) Before his or her first solo flight, a student pilot shall be at least 16 years of age.
Applicants for a PPL shall be at least 17 years old.
Applicants for a PPL(A) shall have completed at least 45 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes or TMGs, 5 of which may have been completed in an FSTD, including at least:
(1) 25 hours of dual flight instruction and
(2) 10 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.
Crediting of flight time
(a) Applicants for a PPL(A) holding an LAPL(A) shall have completed at least 15 hours of flight time on aeroplanes after the issue of the LAPL(A), of which at least 10 shall be flight instruction completed in a training course at a DTO or at an ATO. That training course shall include at least four hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least two hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least one cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.
(b) Applicants for a PPL(A) holding an SPL issued in accordance with Annex III (Part-SFCL) to Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1976, including privileges to fly TMGs. Applicants for a PPL(A) who hold an SPL with the privileges to fly TMGs shall have completed:
(1) at least 24 hours of flight time on TMGs after endorsement of the TMG privileges and
(2) at least 15 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes in a training course at a DTO or at an ATO, including at least the requirements of point (a)(2). (3) Applicants holding a pilot licence for another category of aircraft, with the exception of balloons, shall be credited with 10 % of their total flight time as PIC on such aircraft up to a maximum of 10 hours. The amount of credit given shall in any case not include the requirements in (a)(2).
Theoretical knowledge examination subjects
Applicants for a PPL shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted through examinations in the following subjects:
- Air law,
- Human performance,
- Principles of flight,
- Operational procedures,
- Flight performance and planning, and
- Aircraft general knowledge.
(a) Responsibilities of the applicant
(1) Applicants shall take the entire set of theoretical knowledge examinations for a specific licence or rating under the responsibility of the same Member State’s competent authority.
(2) Applicants shall only take the theoretical knowledge examination when recommended by the declared training organisation (DTO) or the approved training organisation (ATO) responsible for their training, once they have completed the appropriate elements of the training course of theoretical knowledge instruction to a satisfactory standard.
(3) The recommendation by a DTO or an ATO shall be valid for 12 months. If the applicant has failed to attempt at least one theoretical knowledge examination paper within this period of validity, the need for further training shall be determined by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicant.
(b) Pass standards
1) A pass in a theoretical knowledge examination paper will be awarded to an applicant achieving at least 75 % of the marks allocated to that paper. No penalty marking shall be applied.
(2) Unless otherwise determined in this Part, an applicant has successfully completed the required theoretical knowledge examination for the appropriate pilot licence or rating if he or she has passed all the required theoretical knowledge examination papers within a period of 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination. (3) If applicants for the issue of a light aircraft pilot licence (LAPL), a private pilot licence (PPL), a sailplane pilot licence (SPL) or a balloon pilot licence (BPL) have failed to pass one of the theoretical knowledge examination papers within four attempts or have failed to pass all papers within the period mentioned in point (b)(2), they shall retake the complete set of theoretical knowledge examination papers.
(4) Before retaking the theoretical knowledge examinations, applicants shall undertake further training at a DTO or an ATO. The extent and scope of the training needed shall be determined by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicants.
(c) Validity period
1) The successful completion of the theoretical knowledge examinations will be valid:
(i) for the issue of a light aircraft pilot licence or a private pilot licence, for a period of 24 months.
(a) General. Aeroplane, helicopter, powered-lift and airship pilots required to use the radio telephone shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings unless they have a language proficiency endorsement on their licence in either English or the language used for radio communications involved in the flight. The endorsement shall indicate the language, the proficiency level and the validity date.
(b) The applicant for a language proficiency endorsement shall demonstrate, at least an operational level of language proficiency both in the use of phraseologies and plain language to an assessor certified by a competent authority or a language-testing body approved by a competent authority as applicable. To do so, the applicant shall demonstrate the ability to:
(1) communicate effectively in voice-only and in face-to-face situations.
(2) communicate on common and work-related topics with accuracy and clarity.
(3) use appropriate communicative strategies to exchange messages and to recognise and resolve misunderstandings in a general or work-related context.
(4) handle successfully the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or unexpected turn of events which occurs within the context of a routine work situation or communicative task with which they are otherwise familiar and
(5) use a dialect or accent which is intelligible to the aeronautical community.
(c) Except for pilots who have demonstrated language proficiency at an expert level (level 6) , the language proficiency endorsement shall be re-evaluated every:
(1) 4 years, if the level demonstrated is operational level (level 4) or
(2) 6 years, if the level demonstrated is extended level (level 5).
(a) Before a skill test for the issue of a licence, rating or certificate is taken, the applicant shall have passed the required theoretical knowledge examination.
(b) The applicant for a skill test shall be recommended for the test by the organisation/person responsible for the training, once the training is completed. The training records shall be made available to the examiner.
(c) Through the completion of a skill test, applicants for a PPL shall demonstrate the ability to perform as PIC on the appropriate aircraft category, their knowledge of relevant procedures and manoeuvres with the competency appropriate to the privileges granted.
(d) Applicants for the skill test shall have received flight instruction on the same class or type of aircraft to be used for the skill test.
(e) Pass marks
(1) The skill test shall be divided into different sections, representing all the different phases of flight appropriate to the category of aircraft flown.
(2) Failure in any item of a section will cause the applicant to fail the entire section. If the applicant fails only 1 section, he/she shall repeat only that section. Failure in more than 1 section will cause the applicant to fail the entire test.
(3) When the test needs to be repeated in accordance with (2), failure in any section, including those that have been passed on a previous attempt, will cause the applicant to fail the entire test.
(4) Failure to achieve a pass in all sections of the test in 2 attempts will require further training.
FCL.030 / FCL.235