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GM1 to Annex Vc (Part-CAMO) Definitions

For the purpose of the AMC & GM to Part-CAMO, the following definitions are used:


refers to a systematic, independent, and documented process for obtaining evidence, and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which requirements are complied with. Note: Audits may include inspections.

Alternative means of compliance (AltMoC)

are those means that propose an alternative to an existing AMC or those that propose new means to establish compliance with Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 and its delegated and implementing acts for which no associated AMC have been adopted by the Agency.


in the context of management system performance monitoring, continuous improvement and oversight, refers to a planned and documented activity performed by competent personnel to evaluate and analyse the achieved level of performance and maturity in relation to the organisation’s policy and objectives. Note: An assessment focuses on desirable outcomes and the overall performance, looking at the organisation as a whole. The main objective of the assessment is to identify the strengths and weaknesses to drive continual improvement. Remark: For ‘risk assessment’, please refer to the definition below.

Base maintenance

Ref. AMC1 145.A.10


is a combination of individual skills, practical and theoretical knowledge, attitudes, training, and experience.


is the action to eliminate a detected non-compliance.

Corrective action

is the action to eliminate or mitigate the root cause(s) and prevent the recurrence of an existing detected non-compliance, or other undesirable conditions or situations. Proper determination of the root cause(s) is crucial for defining effective corrective actions to prevent reoccurrence.


is an action or inaction by a person that may lead to deviations from accepted procedures or regulations. Note: Errors are often associated with occasions where a planned sequence of mental or physical activities either fails to achieve its intended outcome, or is not appropriate with regard to the intended outcome, and when results cannot be attributed purely to chance.


is a condition or an object with the potential to cause or contribute to an aircraft incident or accident.

Human factors

is anything that affects human performance, which means principles that apply to aeronautical activities, and which seek safe interface between the human and other system components by proper consideration of human performance.

Human performance

refers to human capabilities and limitations which have an impact on the safety and efficiency of aeronautical activities.


in the context of compliance monitoring and oversight, refers to an independent documented conformity evaluation by observation and judgement accompanied, as appropriate, by measurement, testing or gauging, in order to verify compliance with applicable requirements. Note: Inspection may be part of an audit (e.g. product audit), but may also be conducted outside the normal audit plan; for example, to verify closure of a particular finding.

Just Culture

Ref. Regulation (EU) No 376/2014, Article 2.
‘just culture’ means a culture in which front-line operators or other persons are not punished for actions, omissions or decisions taken by them that are commensurate with their experience and training, but in which gross negligence, wilful violations and destructive acts are not tolerated;

Line maintenance

Ref. AMC 145.A.10


is an event in which an occurrence to be mandatorily reported according to Regulation (EU) No 376/2014 was narrowly averted or avoided.

Example: A CAMO staff on rechecking his/her work at the end of a task realises that an AD, AWL, CMR task was not properly processed (for instance, in the AMP or continuing airworthiness record system) which would have led to a situation that the AD/AWL/CMR would not have been performed on time on the affected (fleet of) aircraft.

Organisational factor

is a condition that affects the effectiveness of safety risk controls, related to the culture, policies, processes, resources, and workplace of an organisation.

Oversight planning cycle

refers to the time frame within which all areas of the approval and all processes should be reviewed by the competent authority by means of audits and inspections.

Oversight programme

refers to the detailed oversight schedule that defines the number of audits and inspections, the scope and duration of each audit and inspection, including details of product audits and locations, as appropriate, to be performed by the competent authority, and the tentative time frame for performing each audit and inspection.

Post holder

means the person nominated in accordance with point CAMO.A.305(b)(2).

Preventive action

is the action to eliminate the cause of a potential non-compliance, or other undesirable potential situation.

Risk assessment

is an evaluation based on engineering and operational judgement and/or analysis methods in order to establish whether the achieved or perceived risk is acceptable or tolerable.

Safety Culture

is an enduring set of values, norms, attitudes, and practices within an organisation concerned with minimising the exposure of the workforce and the general public to dangerous or hazardous conditions. In a positive safety culture, a shared concern for, commitment to, and accountability for safety is promoted.

Safety risk

refers to the predicted probability and severity of the consequences or outcomes of a hazard.

Safety training

refers to dedicated training to support safety management policies and processes, including human factors training.

Note: The main purpose of the safety training programme is to ensure that personnel at all levels of the organisation maintain their competency to fulfil their roles safely. Safety training should, in particular, consider the safety knowledge derived from hazard identification and risk management processes, and support the fostering of a positive safety culture.

Note: Safety management training refers to specific training for the staff involved in safety management functions in accordance with point CAMO.A.305(a)(5) or CAMO.A.200(a)(3)

Working days

refer to days between and including Monday to Friday not including public holidays.

Updated on 11/06/2021

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