Circumstances in which class or type ratings are required
(a) Holders of a pilot licence shall act as pilots of an aircraft only if they have a valid and appropriate class or type rating, unless any of the following applies:
(1) if exercising the privileges of an LAPL.
(2) if they take skill tests or proficiency checks for renewal of class or type ratings.
(3) if they receive flight instruction.
(4) if they hold a flight test rating issued in accordance with point FCL.820.
(b) Notwithstanding (a), in the case of flights related to the introduction or modification of aircraft types, pilots may hold a special certificate given by the competent authority, authorising them to perform the flights. This authorisation shall have its validity limited to the specific flights.
AMC1 FCL.700 Circumstances in which class or type ratings are required
(a) A class or type rating and license endorsement should comply with the class and type ratings that are listed in one of the following EASA publications, as applicable:
(1) ‘List of Aeroplanes — Class and Type Ratings and Endorsement List’ and
(2) ‘List of Helicopters — Type Ratings List’.
(b) Holders of Part-FCL licences should complete differences training or familiarisation training in accordance with the lists of point (a).
Class and type ratings – variants
(a) Pilots shall complete differences training or familiarisation in order to extend their privileges to another variant of aircraft within one class or type rating. In the case of variants within a class or type rating, the differences training or familiarisation shall include the relevant elements defined in the OSD, where applicable.
(b) The differences training shall be conducted at any of the following:
- an ATO
- a DTO in the case of aircraft referred to in points (a)(1)(c) and (a)(2)(c) of point DTO.GEN.110 of Annex VIII.
- an AOC holder having an approved differences training programme for the relevant class or type.
(c) If pilots have not flown the variant within 2 years following the training listed in point (b), a further differences training or a proficiency check in that variant shall be completed, except for types or variants within the SEP and TMG class ratings.The differences training or the proficiency check in that variant shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor or examiner as appropriate.
(d) The differences training or the proficiency check in that variant shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor or examiner as appropriate.
Requirements for the issue of class and type ratings
(a) Training course
An applicant for a class or type rating shall complete a training course at an ATO. An applicant for a non-high-performance single-engine piston class rating, a TMG class rating or a single-engine type rating for helicopters referred to in point DTO.GEN.110(a)(2)(c) of Annex VIII (Part-DTO) may complete the training course at a DTO. The type rating training course shall include the mandatory training elements for the relevant type as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.
(b) Theoretical knowledge examination
The applicant for a class or type rating shall pass a theoretical knowledge examination organised by the ATO to demonstrate the level of theoretical knowledge required for the safe operation of the applicable aircraft class or type.
- For multi-pilot aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be written and comprise at least 100 multiple-choice questions distributed appropriately across the main subjects of the syllabus.
- For single-pilot multi-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be written and the number of multiple-choice questions shall depend on the complexity of the aircraft.
- For single-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be conducted verbally by the examiner during the skill test to determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge has been achieved.
(c) Skill Test
An applicant for a class or type rating shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part to demonstrate the skill required for the safe operation of the applicable class or type of aircraft.
The applicant shall pass the skill test within a period of 6 months after commencement of the class or type rating training course and within a period of 6 months preceding the application for the issue of the class or type rating.
An applicant who already holds a type rating for an aircraft type, with the privilege for either single-pilot or multi-pilot operations, shall be considered to have already fulfilled the theoretical requirements when applying to add the privilege for the other form of operation on the same aircraft type. Such an applicant shall complete additional flight training for the other form of operation at an ATO or an AOC holder specifically authorised for such training by the competent authority. The form of operation shall be entered in the licence.
Notwithstanding the paragraphs above, pilots holding a flight test rating issued in accordance with FCL.820 who were involved in development, certification or production flight tests for an aircraft type, and have completed either 50 hours of total flight time or 10 hours of flight time as PIC on test flights in that type, shall be entitled to apply for the issue of the relevant type rating, provided that they comply with the experience requirements and the prerequisites for the issue of that type rating, as established in this Subpart for the relevant aircraft category.
Applicants for a class rating for TMGs who also hold an SPL in accordance with Annex III (Part-SFCL) to Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1976, including the privileges to fly on TMGs, shall receive full credits towards the requirements in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c).
Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of type ratings – helicopters
Unless otherwise determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, an applicant for the issue of the first helicopter type rating shall comply with the following experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of the relevant rating:
(a)Multi-pilot helicopters. An applicant for the first type rating course for a multi-pilot helicopter type shall:
(1) have at least 70 hours as PIC on helicopters
(2) except when the type rating course is combined with an MCC course:
(i) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of an MCC course in helicopters or
(ii) have at least 500 hours as a pilot on multi-pilot aeroplanes or
(iii) have at least 500 hours as a pilot in multi-pilot operations on multi-engine helicopters.
(3) have passed the ATPL(H) theoretical knowledge examinations.
(b) An applicant for the first type rating course for a multi-pilot helicopter type who is a graduate from an ATP(H)/IR, ATP(H), CPL(H)/IR or CPL(H) integrated course and who does not comply with the requirement of (a)(1), shall have the type rating issued with the privileges limited to exercising functions as co-pilot only. The limitation shall be removed once the pilot has:
(1) completed 70 hours as PIC or pilot-in-command under supervision of helicopters
(2) passed the multi-pilot skill test on the applicable helicopter type as PIC.
(c) Single-pilot multi-engine helicopters. An applicant for the issue of a first type rating for a single-pilot multi-engine helicopter shall:
(1) before starting flight training:
(i) have passed the ATPL(H) theoretical knowledge examinations or
(ii) hold a certificate of completion of a pre-entry course conducted by an ATO. The course shall cover the following subjects of the ATPL(H) theoretical knowledge course:
— Aircraft General Knowledge:
airframe/systems/power plant, and instrument/electronics.
— Flight Performance and Planning:
mass and balance, performance.
(2) in the case of applicants who have not completed an ATP(H)/IR, ATP(H), or CPL(H)/IR integrated training course, have completed at least 70 hours as PIC on helicopters.