Circumstances in which class or type ratings are required
(a) Holders of a pilot licence shall act as pilots of an aircraft only if they have a valid and appropriate class or type rating, unless any of the following applies:
(1) if exercising the privileges of an LAPL.
(2) if they take skill tests or proficiency checks for renewal of class or type ratings.
(3) if they receive flight instruction.
(4) if they hold a flight test rating issued in accordance with point FCL.820.
(b) Notwithstanding (a), in the case of flights related to the introduction or modification of aircraft types, pilots may hold a special certificate given by the competent authority, authorising them to perform the flights. This authorisation shall have its validity limited to the specific flights.
AMC1 FCL.700 Circumstances in which class or type ratings are required
(a) A class or type rating and license endorsement should comply with the class and type ratings that are listed in one of the following EASA publications, as applicable:
(1) ‘List of Aeroplanes — Class and Type Ratings and Endorsement List’ and
(2) ‘List of Helicopters — Type Ratings List’.
(b) Holders of Part-FCL licences should complete differences training or familiarisation training in accordance with the lists of point (a).
Class and type ratings – variants
(a) Pilots shall complete differences training or familiarisation in order to extend their privileges to another variant of aircraft within one class or type rating. In the case of variants within a class or type rating, the differences training or familiarisation shall include the relevant elements defined in the OSD, where applicable.
(b) The differences training shall be conducted at any of the following:
- an ATO
- a DTO in the case of aircraft referred to in points (a)(1)(c) and (a)(2)(c) of point DTO.GEN.110 of Annex VIII.
- an AOC holder having an approved differences training programme for the relevant class or type.
(c) Notwithstanding the requirement in point (b), differences training for TMG, single-engine piston (SEP), single- engine turbine (SET) and multi-engine piston (MEP) aeroplanes may be conducted by an appropriately qualified instructor unless otherwise provided in the OSD.
(d) If pilots have not flown the variant within 2 years following the training listed in point (b), a further differences training or a proficiency check in that variant shall be completed, except for types or variants within the SEP and TMG class ratings.The differences training or the proficiency check in that variant shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor or examiner as appropriate.
(e) The differences training or the proficiency check in that variant shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor or examiner as appropriate.
Requirements for the issue of class and type ratings
(a) Training course
An applicant for a class or type rating shall complete a training course at an ATO. An applicant for a non-high-performance single-engine piston class rating, a TMG class rating or a single-engine type rating for helicopters referred to in point DTO.GEN.110(a)(2)(c) of Annex VIII (Part-DTO) may complete the training course at a DTO. The type rating training course shall include the mandatory training elements for the relevant type as defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.
(b) Theoretical knowledge examination
The applicant for a class or type rating shall pass a theoretical knowledge examination organised by the ATO to demonstrate the level of theoretical knowledge required for the safe operation of the applicable aircraft class or type.
- For multi-pilot aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be written and comprise at least 100 multiple-choice questions distributed appropriately across the main subjects of the syllabus.
- For single-pilot multi-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be written and the number of multiple-choice questions shall depend on the complexity of the aircraft.
- For single-engine aircraft, the theoretical knowledge examination shall be conducted verbally by the examiner during the skill test to determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge has been achieved.
- For single-pilot aeroplanes that are classified as high performance aeroplanes, the examination shall be written and comprise at least 100 multiple-choice questions distributed appropriately across the subjects of the syllabus.
- For single-pilot single-engine and single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes (sea), the examination shall be in a written form and shall comprise at least 30 multiple-choice questions.
(c) Skill Test
An applicant for a class or type rating shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 9 to this Part to demonstrate the skill required for the safe operation of the applicable class or type of aircraft.
The applicant shall pass the skill test within a period of 6 months after commencement of the class or type rating training course and within a period of 6 months preceding the application for the issue of the class or type rating.
An applicant who already holds a type rating for an aircraft type, with the privilege for either single-pilot or multi-pilot operations, shall be considered to have already fulfilled the theoretical requirements when applying to add the privilege for the other form of operation on the same aircraft type. Such an applicant shall complete additional flight training for the other form of operation at an ATO or an AOC holder specifically authorised for such training by the competent authority. The form of operation shall be entered in the licence.
Notwithstanding the paragraphs above, pilots holding a flight test rating issued in accordance with FCL.820 who were involved in development, certification or production flight tests for an aircraft type, and have completed either 50 hours of total flight time or 10 hours of flight time as PIC on test flights in that type, shall be entitled to apply for the issue of the relevant type rating, provided that they comply with the experience requirements and the prerequisites for the issue of that type rating, as established in this Subpart for the relevant aircraft category.
Applicants for a class rating for TMGs who also hold an SPL in accordance with Annex III (Part-SFCL) to Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1976, including the privileges to fly on TMGs, shall receive full credits towards the requirements in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c).
Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of class or type ratings – aeroplanes
Unless otherwise determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Annex I (Part-21) to Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 (OSD), applicants for the issue of a class or type rating shall comply with the following experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of the relevant rating:
(a) Single-pilot aeroplanes
Applicants for the issue of a first class or type rating on a single-pilot aeroplane seeking the privilege to operate the aeroplane in multi-pilot operations shall meet the requirements in points (b)(4) and (b)(5).
(1) Single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes
Applicants for the issue of a first class or type rating on a single-pilot multi-engine aeroplane shall have completed at least 70 hours as PIC in aeroplanes.
(2) Single-pilot high-performance non-complex aeroplanes
Before starting flight training, applicants for the issue of a class or type rating for a single-pilot aeroplane classified as a high-performance aeroplane shall:
(i) have at least 200 hours of total flying experience, of which 70 hours as PIC in aeroplanes and
(ii) comply with one of the following requirements:
(A) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of a course for additional theoretical knowledge undertaken at an ATO or
(B) have passed the ATPL(A) theoretical knowledge examinations in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL) or
(C) hold, in addition to a licence issued in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL), an ATPL(A) or CPL(A)/IR with theoretical knowledge credit for ATPL(A), issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention.
(3) Single-pilot high-performance complex aeroplanes
Applicants for the issue of a type rating for a complex single-pilot aeroplane classified as a high- performance aeroplane shall, in addition to meeting the requirements in point (2), hold or have held a single- or multi-engine IR(A), as appropriate and as established in Subpart G and shall meet the requirements in point (b)(5).
(b) Multi-pilot aeroplanes Applicants for the issue of the first type rating course for a multi-pilot aeroplane shall be student pilots currently undergoing training on an MPL training course or comply with the following requirements:
(1) have at least 70 hours of flight experience as PIC in aeroplanes;
(2) hold or have held a multi-engine IR(A)
(3) have passed the ATPL(A) theoretical knowledge examinations in accordance with this Annex (Part-FCL)
(4) except when the type rating course is combined with an MCC course:
(i) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of an MCC course in aeroplanes or
(ii) hold a certificate of satisfactory completion of MCC in helicopters and have more than 100 hours of flight experience as pilots of multi-pilot helicopters or
(iii) have at least 500 hours as pilots of multi-pilot helicopters or
(iv) have at least 500 hours as pilots in multi-pilot operations on single-pilot multi-engine aeroplanes, in commercial air transport in accordance with the applicable air operations requirements and
(5) have completed the training course specified in FCL.745.A.
(c) Notwithstanding point (b), a Member State may issue a type rating with restricted privileges for a multi-pilot aeroplane that allows holders of such a rating to act as cruise relief co-pilots above Flight Level 200, provided that two other members of the crew have a type rating in accordance with point (b).
(d) When so determined in the OSD, the exercise of the privileges of a type rating may be initially limited to flight under the supervision of an instructor. The flight hours under supervision shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor. The limitation shall be removed when pilots demonstrate that the hours of flight under supervision required in the OSD have been completed.
AMC1 FCL.720.A(b)(2)(i) Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of class or type ratings – aeroplanes
ADDITIONAL THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR A CLASS OR TYPE RATING FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE SINGLE-PILOT (SP) AEROPLANES
(a) A number of aeroplanes certificated for SP operation have similar performances, systems and navigation capabilities to those more usually associated with MP types of aeroplanes, and regularly operate within the same airspace. The level of knowledge required to operate safely in this environment is not part of, or not included to the necessary depth of knowledge in the training syllabi for the PPL, CPL or IR(A) but these licence holders may fly as PIC of such aeroplanes. The additional theoretical knowledge required to operate such aeroplanes safely is obtained by completion of a course at an ATO.
(b) The aim of the theoretical knowledge course is to provide the applicant with sufficient knowledge of those aspects of the operation of aeroplanes capable of operating at high speeds and altitudes, and the aircraft systems necessary for such operation.