An applicant for a CPL shall be at least 18 years of age.
Applicants for an ATPL shall be at least 21 years of age.
Theoretical knowledge examination subjects
Applicants for the issue of a CPL shall demonstrate a level of knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted in the following subjects:
(a) air law.
(b) aircraft general knowledge — airframe/systems/power plant.
(c) aircraft general knowledge — instrumentation.
(d) mass and balance.
(f) flight planning and monitoring.
(g) human performance.
(i) general navigation.
(j) radio navigation.
(k) operational procedures.
(l) principles of flight and
(a) Responsibilities of the applicant
- Applicants shall take the entire set of theoretical knowledge examinations for a specific licence or rating under the responsibility of the same Member State’s competent authority.
- Applicants shall only take the theoretical knowledge examination when recommended by the declared training organisation (DTO) or the approved training organisation (ATO) responsible for their training, once they have completed the appropriate elements of the training course of theoretical knowledge instruction to a satisfactory standard.
- The recommendation by a DTO or an ATO shall be valid for 12 months. If the applicant has failed to attempt at least one theoretical knowledge examination paper within this period of validity, the need for further training shall be determined by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicant.
(b) Pass standards
- A pass in a theoretical knowledge examination paper will be awarded to an applicant achieving at least 75 % of the marks allocated to that paper. No penalty marking shall be applied.
- Unless otherwise determined in this Part, an applicant has successfully completed the required theoretical knowledge examination for the appropriate pilot licence or rating if he or she has passed all the required theoretical knowledge examination papers within a period of 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination.
- If an applicant for the ATPL theoretical knowledge examination, or for the issue of a commercial pilot licence (CPL), an instrument rating (IR) or an en route instrument rating (EIR) has failed to pass one of the theoretical knowledge examination papers within four attempts, or has failed to pass all papers within either six sittings or within the period mentioned in point (2), he or she shall retake the complete set of theoretical knowledge examination papers.
- Before retaking the theoretical knowledge examinations, applicants shall undertake further training at a DTO or an ATO. The extent and scope of the training needed shall be determined by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicants.
(c) Validity period
The successful completion of the theoretical knowledge examinations will be valid:
- for the issue of a commercial pilot licence, instrument rating (IR) or en route instrument rating (EIR), for a period of 36 months.
- the periods in 1 shall be counted from the day when the pilot successfully completes the theoretical knowledge examination, in accordance with (b) (2).
The completion of the airline transport pilot licence (ATPL) theoretical knowledge examinations will remain valid for the issue of an ATPL for a period of 7 years from the last validity date of:
- an IR entered in the licence or
- in the case of helicopters, a helicopter’s type rating entered in that licence.
Flying training course
The flying training shall comprise a total of at least 195 hours, to include all progress tests. Within the total of 195 hours, applicants shall complete at least:
(a) 140 hours of dual instruction, of which:
- 75 hours visual instruction may include:
- 30 hours in a helicopter FFS, level C/D, or
- 25 hours in a FTD 2,3, or
- 20 hours in a helicopter FNPT II/III, or
- 20 hours in an aeroplane or TMG.
- 50 hours instrument instruction may include:
- up to 20 hours in a helicopter FFS or FTD 2,3 or FNPT II/III, or
- 10 hours in at least a helicopter FNPT 1 or an aeroplane.
- 15 hours MCC, for which a helicopter FFS or helicopter FTD 2,3(MCC) or FNPT II/III(MCC) may be used.
(b) 55 hours as PIC, of which 40 hours may be as SPIC. At least 14 hours solo day and 1 hour solo night shall be made.
(c) 50 hours of cross-country flight, including at least 10 hours of cross-country flight as SPIC including a VFR cross-country flight of at least 185 km (100 NM) in the course of which landings at two different aerodromes from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.
(d) 5 hours flight time in helicopters shall be completed at night comprising 3 hours of dual instruction including at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation and 5 solo night circuits. Each circuit shall include a take-off and a landing.
(e) 50 hours of dual instrument time comprising:
- 10 hours basic instrument instruction time, and
- 40 hours IR Training, which shall include at least 10 hours in a multi-engine IFR-certificated helicopter.
Appendix 3 Part F to Annex 1
Crediting of flight time
- An applicant may be admitted to training either as an ab-initio entrant, or as a holder of a PPL(H) issued in accordance with Annex 1 to the Chicago Convention. In the case of an entrant holding a PPL(H), 50% of the relevant experience shall be credited, up to a maximum of:
(a) 40 hours, of which up to 20 hours may be dual instruction or
(b) 50 hours, of which up to 25 hours may be dual instruction, if a helicopter night rating has been obtained.
- If the helicopter used for the flying training is of a different type from the FFS used for the visual training, the maximum credit shall be limited to that allocated for the FNPT II/III.
Appendix 3 Part F to Annex 1
(a) General. Aeroplane, helicopter, powered-lift and airship pilots required to use the radio telephone shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings unless they have a language proficiency endorsement on their licence in either English or the language used for radio communications involved in the flight. The endorsement shall indicate the language, the proficiency level and the validity date.
(b) The applicant for a language proficiency endorsement shall demonstrate, at least an operational level of language proficiency both in the use of phraseologies and plain language to an assessor certified by a competent authority or a language-testing body approved by a competent authority as applicable. To do so, the applicant shall demonstrate the ability to:
(1) communicate effectively in voice-only and in face-to-face situations.
(2) communicate on common and work-related topics with accuracy and clarity.
(3) use appropriate communicative strategies to exchange messages and to recognise and resolve misunderstandings in a general or work-related context.
(4) handle successfully the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or unexpected turn of events which occurs within the context of a routine work situation or communicative task with which they are otherwise familiar and
(5) use a dialect or accent which is intelligible to the aeronautical community.
(c) Except for pilots who have demonstrated language proficiency at an expert level (level 6) , the language proficiency endorsement shall be re-evaluated every:
(1) 4 years, if the level demonstrated is operational level (level 4) or
(2) 6 years, if the level demonstrated is extended level (level 5).
(a) Before a skill test for the issue of a licence, rating or certificate is taken, the applicant shall have passed the required theoretical knowledge examination.
(b) The applicant for a skill test shall be recommended for the test by the organisation/person responsible for the training, once the training is completed. The training records shall be made available to the examiner.
(c) An applicant for a CPL shall pass a skill test in accordance with Appendix 4 to demonstrate the ability to perform, as PIC of the appropriate aircraft category, the relevant procedures and manoeuvres with the competency appropriate to the privileges granted.
(d) An applicant for a skill test for the CPL shall have received instruction on the same class or type of aircraft to be used in the test.
(e) An applicant shall pass all the relevant sections of the skill test. If any item in a section is failed, that section is failed. Failure in more than one section will require the applicant to take the entire test again. An applicant failing only in one section shall only repeat the failed section. Failure in any section of the retest, including those sections that have been passed on a previous attempt, will require the applicant to take the entire test again. All relevant sections of the skill test shall be completed within 6 months. Failure to achieve a pass in all relevant sections of the test in two attempts will require further training.
(f) Further training may be required following any failed skill test. There is no limit to the number of skill tests that may be attempted.
FCL.030 / FCL.320 / Appendix 4 to Annex 1
FCL.030 / FCL.520 / Appendix 9 to Annex 1